ANDOSOLS OF EUROPE
Soil Resources of European Volcanic Systems

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ITALIAN SOIL PROFILES

PROFILE EUR01 - IT
Napels, Italy, Gauro Volcano - August 1999

Date of description: 27-08-1999

Authors: A.G. Jongmans, F. van Oort

Location: Italy, Napoli, Gauro Volcano

Altitude: About 103 m

Co-ordinates:

Latitude: 4052'4'' N

Longitude: 1406'38,40'' E (Greenwich)

Map number and Co-ordinates: F184Marano di Napoli IV SE (scale 1:25000)


Click on image to enlarge

Classification:
 WRB (2001): Humi-Tephric Regosol (Eutric)
ST (1999): Ashy, glassy, nonacid, thermic Vitrandic Xeropsamment

Soil Climate: Thermic temperature regime, Xeric moisture regime.

Topography: Rolling

Landform: Hill, Volcano

Land element: NE Slope

Position: Upper slope

Slope: Strongly sloping (10-15%)

Form: Terraced

Micro-topography: At the slope a number of flat to almost flat terraces occur

Landuse/Vegetation: Orchard (apples). Soil surface is covered by herbs.

Human influences: situated in a man made terrace, and ploughed till 15 cm.

Parent material: Pyroclastic trachytic ash deposits; age: 3700 BP (Astroni eruption)

Effective soil depth: Deep

Erosion: No erosion features visible

Drainage class: Somewhat excessively drained, never saturated

Moisture conditions: Slightly moist

Moisture conditions: Moist
 

SOIL HORIZON DESCRIPTION:

Ap:    0-16 cm; dark brown (10YR 3/3); sandy loam; common, fine to coarse, subrounded trachytic pumice gravel, slightly weathered; weak, very fine to fine subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky (wet); very few, very fine to fine biopores; many fine roots from herb vegetation, few tree roots; some pot cherts; clear and smooth to:

Bw1:  16-54 cm; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6); loamy sand; common fine to coarse subrounded trachytic gravel, fresh to slightly weathered; weak, very fine, subangular blocky; friable; many very fine to fine biopores; many fine roots, few coarse tree roots, few pot cherts; in old dead tree roots many matrix-organic faecal pellets, < 1mm. occur; clear and smooth to:

Bw2:  54-95 cm; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6); loamy sand; common very fine to fine slightly and totally weathered trachytic pumice gravel; fine, distinct, granular structure in a clustered distribution pattern; soft when dry, friable when moist; many very fine and fine biopores; many fine, and medium, few coarse roots; totally decomposed dead roots consisting of organic-matrix faecal pellets; smooth and diffuse to:

BC:    95-120/130 cm; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) and very pale brown (10YR 8/3); loamy sand; common fine to coarse trachytic pumice gravel; 50% of the groundmass has no macrostructure, 50% has a fine, distinct, granular structure; very friable; many very fine biopores; many fine roots and few coarse roots; gradual and irregular to:

C:      >120/130 cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4); fine silt and very fine sand; few fine to coarse gravel; no macro structure; friable; pockets up till 5 cm in size with material of the overlying horizon; few fine biopores; few fine and coarse roots; few decomposed roots.

 

WRB (2001): ochric horizon (0-16 cm); no cambic horizon (too coarse texture); no vitric horizon (Alo + Feo < 0.4, phosphate retention < 25% and BD < 0.9 kg/dm-3 between 16-54 cm; Alo + Feo = 0.4 between 0 and 16 cm, but this is too thin to be a vitric horizon); no Arenosol because of sandy loam texture of surface horizon; mean org. C is 1.38% between 0 and 50 cm depth (Santiago figures); Tephric soil material (WRB) present; BS > 50%:

Humi-Tephric Regosol (Eutric)

ST (1999): ochric epipedon (0-16 cm); no cambic horizon (too coarse texture); no andic soil properties (phosphate retention < 25%); less than 35% rock fragments and loamy fine sand or coarser texture in the particle-size control section (25-100 cm); glass content assumed to be 30% or more in the 0.02-2.0 mm fraction (26-44% in 0.5-0.25 mm, 58-80% in 0.05-0.25 mm):

Ashy, glassy, nonacid, thermic Vitrandic Xeropsamment

 


PROFILE EUR02 - IT
Napels, Italy, Gauro Volcano - August 1999

Date of description: 20-11-1998

Authors: A.G. Jongmans and F. van Oort

Location: Italy, Napoli, Gauro Volcano

Altitude: 225m

Co-ordinates:
Latitude: 4051'36'' N
Longitude: 1406'26,40'' E (Greenwich)

Map number and Co-ordinates: F184 Marano di Napoli IV SE (scale 1:25000)

Classification:
WRB (2001): Eutri-Humic Cambisol
ST (1999): Ashy, glassy, mesic Vitrandic Haploxerept


Click on image to enlarge

Soil Climate: Mesic temperature regime, Xeric moisture regime.

Topography: Rolling

Landform: Hill, Volcano

Land element: Slope, NE oriented

Position: Crest, narrow ridge with concave slopes to the W and E

Slope: Gently sloping (2 - 5%)

Form: Straight in NE direction

Micro-topography: No micro relief

Landuse/Vegetation: Forest, Chestnuts, Herb vegetation: Cyclamen, Brackens

Human influences: Selective cutting of trees

Parent material: Pyroclastic trachytic deposits; end member of the Astroni eruption

Effective soil depth: Deep

Erosion: Not visible, but considering the landscape position, and soil development, this profile has been subject to erosion.

Drainage class: Excessively drained

Internal drainage: Rapid

External drainage: Moderately rapid runoff

Moisture conditions: Slightly moist

SOIL HORIZON DESCRIPTION:

O1:    0-0.3 cm; fresh litter

O2:    0.3-1 cm; partially to completely decomposed organic matter

Ah:    1-3/6 cm; very dark brown (10YR 2/2); sandy loam; no gravel; no macro structure; friable; few fine biopores; many fine and medium roots; frequently matrix/organic faecal pellets (0.5 mm); abrupt and wavy to:

Bw:    3/6-26 cm; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4); sandy loam, few fine to coarse trachytic pumice gravel, partially weathered and locally with thin iron rinds; weak, fine, angular blocky structure; friable to firm; common, fine biopores; very few organic/matrix faecal pellets; many fine and medium, few coarse roots; diffuse and wavy to:

BC1:  26-31/51 cm; pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4); loamy very fine sand; very few, fine to coarse trachytic pumice gravel; 20-50% fine , distinct, granular structure, rest of the groundmass has no macrostructure; friable; many, fine, biopores; common fine, few medium and coarse roots; diffuse and wavy to:

BC2:  31/51-71 cm; light grey to pale yellow (2.5Y 7/3); loamy sand; fine to coarse fresh gravel in discontinuous layers < 1 cm in thickness; disturbed stratification, 10% fine granular structure concentrated in clusters; many fine biopores; many fine , few medium and coarse roots; diffuse and smooth to:

C11:   71-93 cm; light grey (2.5Y 7/2); common, very fine, manganese mottling, very dark brown (10YR 2/2), on fissure surfaces; loamy sand, few trachytic pumice gravel; disturbed stratification; friable, locally firm; few fine, medium, and coarse roots; abrupt and smooth to C2 (not described).

 

WRB (2001): ochric horizon (0-3/6 cm); cambic horizon (3/6-25 cm); no vitric horizon (only 0-26 cm fulfils the requirements, but is too thin to be a vitric horizon, which requires 30 cm thickness); mean org. C most likely > 1% between 0 and 50 cm; BS > 50%:

Eutri-Humic Cambisol

ST (1999): ochric epipedon (0-3/6 cm); cambic horizon (3/6-25 cm); andic soil properties (0-26 cm); no Andisol, because only 43% of the soil within 60 cm have andic soil properties (requirement is 60% or more); glass content assumed to be 30% or more in the 0.02-2.0 mm fraction (15-32% in 0.5-0.25 mm, 50-68% in 0.05-0.25 mm):

Ashy, glassy, mesic Vitrandic Haploxerept


Last modified 30 April 2004 by EG