ANDOSOLS OF EUROPE
Soil Resources of European Volcanic Systems

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ITALIAN SOIL PROFILES

PROFILE EUR03 - IT
Volcano di Vico - November 1998

Date of description: 21-11-1998

Authors: A.G. Jongmans, and F. van Oort

Location: Italy, north of Rome, Volcano di Vico, Monte Venere.

Altitude: 700 m

Co-ordinates:
Map number and Co-ordinates: U.T.M. 33T TG 682 914

Classification:
WRB (2001): Fulvi-Silandic Andosol (Dystric)
ST (1999): Ashy, amorphic, mesic, Eutric Fulvudand

Click on image to enlarge

Soil Climate: Mesic temperature regime, ann. temp. 11.8o C; Udic moisture regime, ann. prec. 1670 mm

Topography: Steeply dissected

Landform: Hill, Volcano

Land element: Slope,

Position: Upper slope

Slope: Steep, 30-60%

Form: Straight

Landuse/Vegetation: Forest: dominantly oak (quercus cerris) with maple, blackberry, ivy (hedera); bracken, honeysuckle, grass.

Human influences: Forest lane cut, a road is situated 20 m above the profile pit

Parent material: Lava, tephritic-phonolitic with leucite

Effective soil depth: Deep

Erosion: Frequently fresh rock fragments (stones) at the soil surface

Drainage class: Well drained

Internal drainage: Rapid

External drainage: Rapid runoff

Moisture conditions: Slightly moist

SOIL HORIZON DESCRIPTION:

O:        0-2 cm; dominantly partially decomposed litter with fresh litter on top; abrupt and smooth to:

Ah1:     2-24 cm; very dark brown (10YR 2/2); no mottling; silt loam, very few fine to coarse gravel, subrounded, partially weathered; very fine to fine granular structure, strongly expressed in the upper 15 cm, decreasing in distinctness with depth; very friable; common fine biopores; many fine, common medium and coarse roots; clear and smooth to:

Ah2:     24-50 cm; very dark brown (10YR 2/2), with pockets of dark brown (10 YR 3/3); no mottling; silt loam, few fine and coarse partly weathered gravel (weathering rinds), in the lower part of the Ah2 a thin stone line is present with partially altered gravel; 30% of the groundmass has a strong very fine granular structure, 70% has no macro structure; very friable; common very fine biopores; many fine, few medium and coarse roots; clear and smooth to:

AB:      50-72 cm; dark brown (7.5YR 3/2), with pockets of (dark) brown (7.5 YR 4/4) (30%); no mottling; silt loam, few fine to coarse slightly weathered gravel (weathering rinds); strong very fine to fine granular structure, locally no macro structure; very friable; common fine pores; many fine roots, few medium and coarse roots; abrupt and wavy to:

2Bw1:  72-100 cm; strong brown (7.5YR 4/6), with pockets of (dark) brown (7.5YR 4/4) (30%); silt loam, very fine to coarse subrounded gravel, partly altered; no macrostructure, locally pockets with strong very fine granular structure; friable; common fine biopores; locally pedotubules filled with matrix/organic faecal pellets (1 mm); many very fine, few medium and coarse roots; clear and smooth to:

2Bw2:  100-127 cm; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6); loam; common fine subrounded gravel and stones, partly altered; no macro structure; friable; few fine biopores; common very fine roots, few medium and coarse roots; clear and smooth to:

2BC:    127-157 cm; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6); loam, many fine subrounded gravel and stones; friable; few fine biopores; common fine, few medium and coarse roots.

 

 

WRB (2001): possibly fulvic horizon (0-30 cm; fulvic is assumed because of forest vegetation, there are no figures on the melanic index; sufficient org. C according to Santiago figures (mean org. C 6.5%); andic horizon (0-125 cm); mean Sio 1,46% (Santiago figures); BS < 50% in at least some part between 20 and 100 cm, but > 20% in all parts between 20 and 100 cm:

Fulvi-Silandic Andosol (Dystric)

ST (1999): possibly melanic epipedon (sufficient org. C according to Santiago figures; no melanic index determined; chosen for Fulvudand because of forest vegetation); andic soil properties (0-125 cm); mean Sio 1.46%, mean Feo 0.42 between 0 and 100cm depth, 8x Sio + 2x Feo > 5, 8x Sio > 2x Feo (Santiago figures):

Ashy, amorphic, mesic Eutric Fulvudand


Last modified 30 April 2004 by EG