Soil Resources of European Volcanic Systems



TOKAI - July 2001

 Date of description: July 16, 2001

Authors: A. Kertesz, G. Fuleky, B. Madarasz, P. Buurman

Location: Hungary, Tokaj, West slope of Tarcal hili.

Altitude: 482 m

Coordinates: N 48.07.268, E 21.22.763

WRB (2001): Silti-Endoleptic Phaeozem
ST (1999): Fine-silty, mixed mesic Vitrandic Haploxeroll / Ultic Haploxeroll


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Local Soil Name: Fekete Nyirok (see profle EUR - 18 for explanation)

Soil Climate: Xeric soil moisture regime; Mesic soil temperature regime

Topography: Hilly landscape

Landform: Hill

Land element: Middle slope

Position: Slope

Relief: Slope gradient 10%, strongly sloping, straight

Microtopography: None

Land Use: Nature conservation area

Vegetation: Natural deciduous forest (Robinia, Sambucus), with undergrowth of Arum, Urtica, e.a.

Human Influence: None apparent.

Parent Material: Andesitic volcanics, 10M years old

Rock outcrops: Sporadic boulders.

Surface sealing: None

Cracking: None

Erosion: Clear slope transport of organic matter; sheet erosion

Drainage class: Well drained

Groundwater: Beyond profile depth

Moisture condition: Moist


O:           0-2 cm; Leaves, pods, branches

Ah1:       2-14/22 cm; Black (10YR 2/1); silt loam; no rock fragments; strong very fine granular structure; very friable; many fine and very fine roots; clear and wavy to:

Ah2:       14/22-47 cm; Very dark grey (10YR 3/1); silt loam; no rock fragments; strong very fine subangular blocky structure; friable to firm; common fine and very fine roots, few coarse and medium roots; clear and smooth to.

2Bw/2R: 47-62 cm; Brown to dark brown (10YR 4/3) and very dark grey (10YR 3/1); loam; 40-50% weathered angular andesitic rock fragments; strong fine angular blocky to granular structure; friable; few roots of all sizes; abrupt and smooth to:

2R:         > 62 cm; Continuous, partly weathered, andesitic rock.


WRB (2001): mollic horizon (0-47 cm); cambic horizon (47-62 cm); no vitric horizon (Ah2 meets P-retention requirement, but is too shallow to be vitric); >40% silt between 2 and 47 cm; continuous rock at 62 cm depth:

Silti-Endoleptic Phaeozem

ST (1999): mollic epipedon (0-47 cm); cambic horizon (47-62 cm); no andic soil properties (Alo + Feo < 0.4%):

Fine-silty, mixed, superactive mesic Vitrandic Haploxeroll
(if volcanic glass content is 13% or more)

Fine-silty, mixed, superactive mesic Ultic Haploxeroll
(if volcanic glass content <13%

Last modified 03 May 2004 by EG