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                           COST 622 ACTION

                         Soil Resources of European Volcanic Systems

 

WORKING GROUP 5

Soil sampling strategy and analysis on reference European
volcanic soils

 


PROFILE N1 - IT

   

  • Date of description: 20-11-1998
  • Authors: A.G. Jongmans and F. van Oort
  • Location: Napels, Italy, Gauro Volcano
  • Altitude: 103m
  • Latitude: 4052'4'' N
  • Longitude: 1406'38'',40 (Greenwich)
  • Map number and Coordinates: F184 Marano di Napoli IV SE (scale 1:25000)
  • Classification:

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  • Soil Climate; Thermic temperature regime, Ustic moisture regime.
  • Topography: Rolling
  • Landform: Hill, Volcano
  • Land element: NE Slope,
  • Position: Upper slope
  • Slope: Strongly sloping (10-15%)
  • Form: Terraced
  • Micro-topography: At the slope a number of flat to almost flat terraces occur
  • Landuse/Vegetation: Orchard (apples). Soil surface is covered by herbs
  • Human influences: situated in a man made terrace, and ploughed till 15 cm.
  • Parent material: Pyroclastic trachytic ash deposits; age: 3700 BP (Astroni eruption)
  • Effective soil depth: Deep
  • Erosion: No erosion features visible.
  • Drainage class: Somewhat excessively drained, never saturated.
  • Moisture conditions: Slightly moist

 

N1 IT SOIL HORIZON DESCRIPTION:

 

Ap: 0-16 cm; 10YR 3/3; sandy loam; common, fine to coarse, subrounded trachytic pumice gravel, slightly weathered; weak, fine to very fine subangular blocky structure; slightly sticky (wet); very few, fine to very fine biopores; many fine roots from herb vegetation, few tree roots; some pot cherts; clear and smooth to:
Bw1: 16-54 cm; 10YR 5/6; loamy sand; common fine to coarse subrounded trachytic gravel, fresh to slightly weathered; weak, very fine, subangular blocky; friable; many very fine to fine biopores; many fine roots, few coarse tree roots, few pot cherts; in old dead tree roots many matric-organic fecal pellets, < 1mm. occur; clear and smooth to:
Bw2: 54-95 cm; !0 YR 6/6; loamy sand; common very fine to fine slightly and totally weathered trachitic pumice gravel; fine, distinct, granular structure in a clustered distribution pattern; soft when dry, friable when moist; many fine and very fine biopores; many fine, and medium, few coarse roots; totally decomposed dead roots consisting of organic-matric fecal pellets; smooth and diffuse to:
BC: 95-120/130 cm; 10YR 6/6 and 10 YR 8/3; loamy sand; common fine to coarse trachitic pumice gravel; 50% of the groundmass has no macrostructure, 50% has a fine, distinct ,granular structure; very friable; many very fine biopores; many fine roots and few coarse roots; gradual and irregular to:
(2?)C: >120/130 cm; 2.5Y 7/4; fine silt and very fine sand; few fine to coarse gravel; no macro structure; friable; pockets up till 5 cm in size with material of the overlying horizon; few fine biopores; few fine and coarse roots; few decomposed roots.

 

 

 PROFILE N2 - IT

 

  • Date of description: 20-11-1998
  • Authors: A.G. Jongmans and F. van Oort
  • Location: Napels, Italy, Gauro Volcano
  • Altitude: 225m
  • Latitude: 4051'36'' N
  • Longitude: 1406'26'',40 (Greenwich)
  • Map number and Coordinates: F184 Marano di Napoli IV SE (scale 1:25000)
  • Classification

 

 

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  • Soil Climate; Mesic temperature regime, Ustic moisture regime.
  • Topography: Rolling
  • Landform: Hill, Volcano
  • Land element: Slope, NE oriented,
  • Position: Crest, narrow ridge with concave slopes to the W and E.
  • Slope: Gently sloping (2 - 5%)
  • Form: Straight in NE direction
  • Micro-topography: No micro relief
  • Landuse/Vegetation: Forest, Chestnuts, Herb vegetation: Cyclamen, Brackens
  • Human influences: Selective cutting of trees
  • Parent material: Pyroclastic trachytic deposits; end member of the Astroni eruption
  • Effective soil depth: Deep
  • Erosion: Not visible, but considering the landscape position, and soil development, this profile has been subject to erosion.
  • Drainage class: Excessively drained
  • Internal drainage: Rapid
  • External drainage: Moderately rapid runoff
  • Moisture conditions: Slightly moist

 

N2 IT SOIL HORIZON DESCRIPTION:

Ol:

 

-1- -0.7cm; fresh litter

 

Of+h:

 

-0.7 – 0 cm; partially to completely decomposed organic matter

 

A1:

 

0-2/5 cm; 10YR 2/2; sandy loam; no gravel; no macro structure; friable; few fine biopores; many fine and medium roots; frequently matric/organic fecal pellets (0.5 mm); abrupt and wavy to:

 

Bw:

 

 

2/5-25 cm; 10YR 4/4; sandy loam, few fine to coarse trachitic pumice gravel, partially weathered and locally with thin iron rinds; weak, fine, angular blocky structure; friable to firm; common, fine biopores; very few organic/matric fecal pellets; many fine and medium, few coarse roots; diffuse and wavy to:

 

BC1:

 

 

25-30/50 cm; 2.5 YR 7/4; loamy very fine sand; very few, fine to coarse trachitic pumice gravel; 20-50% fine ,distinct, granular structure, rest of the groundmass has no macrostructure; friable; many, fine, biopores; common fine, few medium and coarse roots; diffuse and wavy to:

 

BC2:

 

 

30/50-70 cm; 2.5Y 7/3; loamy sand; fine to coarse fresh gravel in discontinuous layers < 1 cm in thickness; disturbed stratification, 10% fine granular structure concentrated in clusters; many fine biopores; many fine , few medium and coarse roots; diffuse and smooth to:

 

C1:

 

 

70-92 cm; 2.5 Y 7/2; common, very fine, manganese mottling,10 YR 2/2, on fissure surfaces; loamy sand, few trachytic                    pumice gravel; disturbed stratification; friable, locally firm; few fine, medium, and coarse roots; abrupt and smooth to:

 

C2: not described.

 

 

PROFILE N3 - IT

 

  • Date of description: 21-11-1998
  • Authors: A.G. Jongmans and F. van Oort
  • Location Volcano di Vico, monte Venere, north of Rome, Italy
  • Altitude: 700m
  • Map number and Coordinates: U.T.M. 33T TG 682 914
  • Classification: Typic Hapludand

 

 

 

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  • Soil Climate: Mesic temperature regime, ann temp.: 11.8 o C ; Udic moisture regime, ann prec. 1670 mm
  • Topography: Steeply dissected
  • Landform: Hill, Volcano
  • Land element: Slope,
  • Position: Upper slope
  • Slope: Steep , 30-60%
  • Form: Straight
  • Landuse/Vegetation: Forest: dominantly oak (quercus cerris) with maple, blackberry, ivy (hedera); bracken, honeysuckle, grass.
  • Human influences: Forest lane cut, a road is situated 20 m above the profile pit
  • Parent material: Lava, tephritic-phonolitic with leucite
  • Effective soil depth: Deep
  • Erosion: Frequently fresh rock fragments (stones) at the soil surface
  • Drainage class: Well drained
  • Internal drainage: Rapid
  • External drainage: Rapid runoff
  • Moisture conditions: Slightly moist

 

 

N4 IT SOIL HORIZON DESCRIPTION:

 

O: -2-0 cm: Ol –2 - -1.5 cm , fresh litter; -1.5 – 0 cm, partly decomposed organic matter; abrupt and smooth to:
A1:

 

0-8 cm; 10 YR 2/2; silt loam, very few ,fine gravel, partly altered; strong, very fine angular blocky structure ; very friable; pores not detectable; many fine, few medium roots; clear and smooth to:
A2:

 

8-25 cm: 7.5 YR 2/0; silt loam, very few fine to coarse gravel, both fresh and weathered; 20% subrounded pockets with strong fine granular structure, rest groundmass has no macro structure; friable; few fine biopores; many fine, few medium and coarse roots; clear and smooth to:
A3:

 

25-43 cm: 10 YR 2/2; silt loam, few fine to coarse fresh and altered gravel, subrounded; very weak, fine, subangular blocky structure, pockets with strong fine granular structure; friable; common fine biopores; many very fine, few medium and coarse roots, clear and smooth to:
Bw1:

 

43-70 cm; 10 YR 4/6 subrounded pockets of 1-2 cm consisting of A3 material; sandy loam, common, fine to coarse gravel ,partly weathered showing weathering rinds; weak, fine subangular structure, locally pedotubules filled with organo-matric fecal pellets; friable; many fine biopores; many fine, few medium and coarse roots; gradual and smooth to:
Bw2:

 

70-105/140 cm; 10YR 5/6; sandy loam, many fine to coarse subrounded gravel, partly weathered; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; many fine biopores; common fine, few, medium and coarse roots; clear and wavy to:
C:

 

 

105/140-180cm; Dark colored, fine textured, blocky lava with vacuoles filled with white leucite crystals/ zeolites; the lava is breakable into smaller entities (physical weathering);vertical elongated fissures up to 5 cm, occur ,filled with loamy sand, 10 YR 6/6; in the fissures fine and medium roots are present.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                  

Last modified 30 October 2003 by IAK